Helping clients market their businesses

I work for a marketing and design consultancy as a web designer and I don’t have a marketing or business background. I’d love some guidance on where to start when thinking about helping a business or organization do things with their website. Technically, I can implement newsletter sign up tactics and I know some SEO tactics and stuff like that but I think I’m missing a very important understanding of business and marketing. Because the tactics come way down stream from understanding business and marketing. (The A line)

My thoughts are we have to understand the model of their target audience: what are they thinking, how are they feeling, what are they doing or not doing and what results are they getting that are undesirable for them. Then think about the audience’s new model and the results they want. Then think about the business and organization and how they solve their audiences problems and how they can communicate that and what their results would be.

Do you have any marketing books or frameworks I could look into to help with understanding this?